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To visualize radio-tracked python movements over time, we plotted aerial telemetry locations for all pythons by date using a geographic information system [ 60 ] and created tracks by connecting successive points, assuming a straight-line movement. For a subset of radio-tracked pythons for which we had walk-in locations and aerial telemetry locations on the same day, we calculated the distance between aerial and ground locations to test the accuracy of aerial locations.

To calculate the mean daily and average mean daily distance traveled, we connected successive points, assuming a straight-line movement. If there were multiple locations per day, we chose the point calculated using the maximum number of satellites range 3 to If there were multiple locations that shared a maximum number of satellites, we chose the point with highest maximum satellite signal strength range 32 to 45 used to calculate the location.

To separate out movements during day and night time hours, we calculated the distance between successive locations during those times. Since data collected between radio-tracked and GPS-tracked pythons were collected on different scales weekly versus multiple per day , and with different technology, data for GPS pythons was analyzed separately.

Home range metrics, by definition, describe the area traversed by an animal during normal daily activities, excluding migrations or erratic movements [ 61 ].

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Estimates of MCP identify home ranges as the area within a polygon formed by joining outermost re-sighting positions of an animal [ 62 - 65 ]; MCP has been commonly applied in other snake tracking studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. Similarly, kernel density is a non-parametric method used to identify one or more areas of disproportionately heavy use that is, core areas within a home-range boundary [ 66 , 67 ], with appropriate weighting of outlying observations.

We overlaid the ENP boundary on all resulting maps of python home ranges and core-use areas. We reclassified a land cover and land use map [ 72 ], using a modified Davis classification for habitat types [ 73 ]; modifications included compiling similar habitat types into fewer, broader categories of habitat classes. Additionally, because many previous python observations have been logged near roads NPS and USGS, unpublished data , which can act as barriers to other animal movements [ 51 ], we determined the number of individual python movement paths that crossed a road.

Finally, to test the hypothesis that radio-tagged pythons displayed high site fidelity during their entire tracking periods or by season wet and dry , we conducted Monte Carlo random walk simulations using Animal Movement Analysis Extension for ArcView 3. Threatened and endangered species geography. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States.

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Open-file report — Reston, VA: U. S Geological Survey, Department of the Interior; Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park. Wall F. Ophidia taprobanica or the snakes of Ceylon. Columbo: Govt. Pope CH.

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The giant snakes. New York: Knopf; Lederer G. Fortpflanzungsbiologie unduntwicklung von Python molurus molurus Linne und Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl. Die Aquarien- Und Terrarien Zeitschrift. Branch WR, Erasmus H. Captive breeding of pythons in South Africa, including details of an interspecific hybrid Python sebae natalensis x Python molurus bivittatus.

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Identifying plausible scenarios for the establishment of invasive Burmese pythons Python molurus in southern Florida. Biol Invasions. Python molurus bivittatus: nesting. Herp Rev. Introduced populations of Boa constrictor Boidae and Python molurus bivittatus Pythonidae in southern Florida. The biology of boas and pythons. Utah: Eagle Mountain Publishing; Can invasive Burmese pythons inhabit temperate regions of the southeastern United States? Goodyear NC.

Comps Notes: State, Provincial, and Historic Parks – Historical DeWitticisms

Python molurus bivittatus Burmese python : movements. J Herpetol. Ecology of Thamnophis sauritis Eastern Ribbon Snake at the northern limit of its range. Northeast Nat. Habitat use and seasonal activity patterns of the Great Plains ratsnake Elaphe guttata emoryi in central Texas.

Southwest Nat. Snakes and monocultures: habitat selection and movements of female grass snakes Natrix natrix L. Spatial ecology of hatchling water pythons Liasis fuscus in tropical Australia. J Trop Ecol. Spatial ecology and multi-scale habitat selection by a threatened rattlesnake: the Eastern Massasauga Sistrurus catenatus catenatus. Spatial ecology and habitat selection of bullsnakes Pituophis catenifer sayi at the northern periphery of their geographic range.

Movement patterns and home range use of the northern watersnake Nerodia sipedon. Madsen T, Shine R. Seasonal migration of predators and prey: pythons and rats in tropical Australia. Slip DJ, Shine R.

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Habitat use, movements, and activity patterns of free-ranging diamond pythons, Morelia spilota spilota Serpentes: Boidae : a radiotelemetric study. Aust Wildlife Res. Shine R, Fitzgerald M. Large snakes in a mosaic rural landscape: the ecology of carpet pythons Morelia spilota Serpentes: Pythonidae in coastal eastern Australia. Biol Cons. Habitat use by the inland carpet python Morelia spilota metcalfei: Pythonidae : seasonal relationships with habitat structure and prey distribution in a rural landscape. Austral Ecol. Spatial ecology of slatey-grey snakes Stegonotus cucullatus, Colubridae on a tropical Australian floodplain.

Spatial ecology of a threatened python Morelia spilota imbricata and the effects of anthropogenic habitat change. Holbrook J, Chesnes T. An effect of Burmese pythons Python molurus bivittatus on mammal populations in southern Florida. Risk assessment of potential invasiveness of exotic reptiles imported to South Florida. Claims of potential expansion throughout the U. PLoS One.

Comps Notes: State, Provincial, and Historic Parks

What parts of the US mainland are climatically suitable for invasive alien pythons spreading from Everglades National Park? A quantitative climate-match score for risk-assessment screening of reptile and amphibian introductions. Environ Manage. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders.

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